Sunday, May 24, 2020

Oil Spill Effect on Environment and Community Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Oil spilling affects the wildlife which moves upwards towards the food chain as they are eaten by other organisms. Breeding is also affected as it becomes difficult for them to breed which is due to the behavior causing the bird sitting along with the reduction in the number of eggs which are laid. Lungs and air passages are also affected of the mammals and turtles which cause pneumonia, congestion and also emphysema. Many bacterial infections along with fungal infections are caused. Skin damage, irritation of the skin, nasal along with mouth cavities. Red blood cells are damaged and the lives of many birds along with mammals are affected badly. An adrenal tissue of the birds is affected which affect blood pressure and also fluid and the concentration of the fluid being affected. The stress level for the mammals is increased and there is also a visible decrease in the eggshells thickness. Various damages are caused which includes the damage which is caused to the mangrove habitats a nd also the seagrass health 2012). The feeding system is affected as well through the feeding done to the children by their mammal s mothers. We will write a custom essay sample on Oil Spill Effect on Environment and Community or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Oil gets stuck with the sensory hair which causes problems in eating and there is also an infection in dugongs and also there are inflammations. Seal pups are rejected, starved and also abandoned.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Psychoanalytic Theory Masculinity - Psychology Dissertations - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3443 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? The late 60s saw a rapidly materialising concern about the status of masculinity. Before the 60s it seemed that the idea of masculinity was safe males could be useful within modern capitalist societies, providing for their families and gaining a sense of satisfaction from their place in society. But society began to change, economically, socially and especially in relation to the position of women. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Psychoanalytic Theory Masculinity Psychology Dissertations" essay for you Create order The rise of feminism was changing womens attitudes about the way in which they were (and are) treated. In turn this was starting to affect how men viewed themselves. Carroll (2004) explains how in American society the breadwinner ideal was being eroded with support from professional groups including psychologists and cardiologists working all the hours and a constant striving for material wealth might not be good for you. How, asked men, do we define ourselves now? This essay will examine the crisis in masculinity from the point of view of psychoanalysis through the Oedipal complex and the castration complex and then move onto evidence from social and cultural theories. To examine how masculinity might be in crisis, it is first necessary to examine how psychoanalytical theories posit that boys gain their masculine identity or in other words how they become men. Modern psychoanalytical theory, as did Freud himself, places a great emphasis on the early relationships of the young boy with his parents or caregivers. It is the vicissitudes of these relationships that will have important consequences for development. In Freudian terms, this early relationship is overshadowed by the Oedipal conflict. The mother shows a great interest in the child and the boy realises that his father represents his main rival to this relationship. The boy desires the mother, but the father stands in the way. Attempting to maintain these conflicting influences at some kind of equilibrium is the central drama of development from a psychoanalytical viewpoint. What, then, are the most important processes that occur in early life that influence the construction (or otherwise) of the male identity out of the Oedipal crisis? Greenson (1968) explains that psychoanalytic theory concentrates on the idea of disidentification, this is divided into two processes: firstly a boy must sever the emotional ties he has with the primary caregiver usually the mother and secondly he needs to identify with a male role-model usually the father. The identification with the father should allow the boy to have a way of communicating with the outside world, to tempt the boy away from psychological closeness with the mother and provide the support needed to avoid the boys return to a symbiotic relationship with his mother. The relationship with the mother, then, is seen by Klein (1975) as a delicate balancing act. It provides a prototype for later relationships with women and so needs to be warm and loving, but it is difficult for a man to have relationships with women if he is too close to his mother. Horrocks (1994) argues that, in fact, the male child is surrounded by femininity throughout his early childhood, and it is important for him to break away and discover a world of men for here lie the roots of the male identity. The central paradox, though, is that the man wishes to escape this cocoon of womanhood but there is also the desire to become close to a woman. One danger in this dynamic is that the early influence of the mother is too great and not sufficiently counter-acted by the father this leads to an inability to separate himself from the mother (Horrocks, 1994). The role of the father in the masculine identity is seen as crucial by psychoanalysts. Horrocks (1994) sees the role of fathering as an introduction to manhood, the introduction to a role that has previously been shrouded in mystery. While there are some initiation rights and ceremonies in some cultures, overall, and especially in western societies, it is not particularly strong. There has actually been a disconnect between the son and his father, now the father heads out to work everyday and no longer has a chance to bond with his son. Horrocks (1994) sees one of the most important functions of the father as to show the young boy that it is possible to live with the mother, to have conflict, fear and guilt, but still to live together. It is through the father-son relationship that the boy can learn that it is possible to live a civilised existence without continual recourse to violence and satiation of primitive longings. The damaged modern male, the male in crisis, is seen by Horro cks (1994) as unfathered. Women are viewed as dangerous to have a relationship is to have a battle and the man must draw himself away from women from time to time to maintain his safety. By never really making a strong connection, the modern man in crisis feels damaged and abused and uses the methods of abuse and damage to relate to others because he knows no other way. This analysis of the Oedipal complex and its effects, as well as the possibility of transcendence, actually describes a rather prototypical interaction between the young boy and his caregiver. Blazina (2004) describes how some criticisms and refinements of this model have been made by subsequent theorists. Bergman (1995), for example, has argued that it is not necessarily with the mother the boy should be disidentifying. There are many situations where the father is actually the provider of the most emotional nurturance. In this case it is better to see the individuation as occurring with the primary caregiver rather than the mother. Blazina (2004) also maintains that there should not be such emphasis on the cutting off of the other identity. Where the other identity is feminine, there is now greater acceptability of feminine qualities in men so these can be integrated into male identity without compromising maleness. For the crisis in masculinity, Freuds conception of the castration complex is of great interest. Freud (1925) theorised that the castration complex had the following stages. Firstly a boy guesses from the evidence of his own anatomy that everyone has a penis. Secondly he finds out that women do not have penises and assumes that they have been mutilated in some way. Thirdly when he begins to masturbate, he is told that he will be castrated. Fourthly, finding that the breast has already been removed, summarises that the penis will be next. Finally, the Oedipus complex is destroyed by this threat of castration. According to Horrocks (1994), Freud saw this sequence of events as concrete, whereas many psychoanalysts now see this in more allegorical terms, as mediated by culture and society. Through gender, both men as well as women are denied a whole world of being, the world of the other gender. After the process of partitioning men and women both feel a sense of loss at the things that they will not be able to experience. In men this castration complex expresses itself in a variety of different ways. Men have a desire for love, a fear of their own sexuality, and, in particular, a fear of their own anger. Horrocks (1994) describes how, as a psychotherapist, many men talk about their fear that their anger will be exposed to the world. To stop this, they have to bottle it up and repress the emotion. As a result, in heterosexual men, this is recognised by the women with whom they have relationships and they are rendered impotent and asexual. A man who acts in this way behaves passive aggressive ly he is motivated to manipulate those around him by his anger. This prohibits a direct connection with other people because his relationships are based on manipulation. The result of this is that feelings are kept inside and denied. A similar problem is seen, in Horrocks experience, in macho men. The castration of the macho man leaves him profoundly afraid of expressing his own feelings. This denies him the possibility of acting emotionally in any situation as this will simply reveal his weakness as he sees it. It is the emotional parts of himself that this man hates and wants to hide away the feminine parts of him are an embarrassment. By being cut-off from his own feelings, the psychologically castrated man experiences an emptiness within himself that he attempts to fill with methods that will never work. The emptiness inside is often experienced as a dead feeling, almost of death itself. It is precisely this almost death from which, Horrocks argues, many men in the crisis of masculinity are suffering. Without the connection with his own emotions, or those of anyone else, he is only half a man, not able to experience himself or others properly, safely cocooned within an empty world. Within Freuds writings, woman were theorised to suffer from envy of the male penis, but Freud did not acknowledge the possibility of men being envious of the female breast. The male-centred idea that penis envy is fundamental to psychoanalysis is attacked by the introduction of the idea of breast envy. Klein (1975), for example, has pointed out that both male and female children have very strong feelings towards the breast both are attracted to it and both want to destroy it. Instead of defining both sexes in terms of the penis one having and the other jealous a reciprocal envy provides balance that acknowledges the lacuna in mens lives as well. The breast does, after all provide, not only nourishment, but also love to the child, and so a womans breast is a symbol of these qualities. Horrocks (1994) argues that men have a strong desire to return to the breast, to return to the originator of life and at the same time men attack the breast and want to destroy it. Melanie Klein posited that the idea of womb envy was also an important component in the male psyche. Minsky (1995) describes how the Kleinian viewpoint sees the development of male power as being rooted in the fear of the womb. Like the young boys envy of his mothers breasts, he also becomes envious of her womb and the power it has to create new life. To make up for this envy, men are forced to concentrate their efforts on cultural and creative efforts and to suppress womens forays into the same field. Minsky (1995) explains that it is the phallus that then saves men and provides a distraction from the envy of the womb. Lacan has a different take on the Oedipus complex. He sees the father not as a real father but as a representation or a metaphor for culture (Lacan, 2004). It is through the young boys experience of cultural factors such as language that he is pulled away from the mother. The mother represents desire for Lacan and so culture, through the representation of the father, pulls the boy from what he desires. This cutting off is like a castration and the child then attempts to substitute this with a search for truth (Minsky, 1995). Many of these psychoanalytical ideas about the roots of a crisis in masculinity are analysed in social theories in terms of a conflict in gender roles. ONeil, Helms, Gable, David, Wrightsman (1986) have defined gender role conflict as where socialised gender roles have an adverse psychological effect which causes a restrictive effect on the self through barriers created around personal creativities and freedom. ONeil et al. (1986) identify four different types of role conflict. There is a restriction in the range of internal emotionality; similarly, there is a restriction in the types of emotional behaviour that are possible towards other men this results in an inability to communicate feelings. Personal achievement and constant comparison to what others have creates a constant sense of fear and worry. There is a conflict between the requirements of work and those of the family which results in stress and health problems, and a simple lack of time to relax. Evidence to support these ideas of role conflicts has come, for example, from Sharpe Heppner (1991) who found a connection between role conflict and problems with intimate relationships. Watts Borders (2005) point out, though, that many of these studies have not been carried out in younger, adolescent boys. In rectifying this hole in the research, Watts Borders (2005) investigated role conflict in adolescent boys. Their findings were in line with the theories put forward by ONeil et al. (1986). The boys in their study said they found there was a societal pressure to restrict their emotionality, both internally and between themselves and other boys. Further they theorised that many of the boys had only been exposed to a very limited range of emotions from male role models indeed many denied experiencing any emotions other than anger. Cultural theories, which intersect with Lacans ideas, are also important in how the crisis in masculinity has been studied. Whitehead (2002) considers arguments that have been played out in the public domain. Firstly he considers the publication of Stiffed: The Betrayal of Modern Man (Faludi, 2000). The thesis of this book is that it is now the male who finds himself objectified and the subject of much sexist consumer culture. In addition the mans secure attachments and relationships with the world of work are no longer as strong and exclusive as they once were. Men seem also, in Faludis view, to be failing to fight back against the new culture, failing to take on this creeping emasculation. Now that feminism has attacked the patriarchal systems of power and control, masculinity has been left undermined and unsure. The rise of feminism has surely encouraged many men to question how they view women and then apparently left them confused. Faludi (2000) places the blame for this crisis in masculinity at the door of culture and encourages them to work together to combat it. While the argument has some elements of truth, quite how men and women are supposed to step outside of culture is not clear. Without men and women, there is no culture people are intimately bound up with it and part of it. The second set of arguments centre around research carried out by Professor Richard Scase as part of the European Commissions Futures Programme (Scase, 1999). This research found that many women are choosing to live alone as their opportunities in the workplace increase and especially as the roles they can adopt widen. It is hypothesised that this is having a knock-on effect on men who find it difficult to cope with this new situation. Evidence for this is in the rising rates of suicide between 1991 and 1997 they have increased by 60%. Social research finds that men are choosing to remain living at home rather than move out on their own (Office of National Statistics, 2000). Whitehead (2002) sees this as evidence that men are failing to cope with the new challenges they are facing. Further cultural and social evidence that men are in crisis is provided by Beynon (2001). Relying heavily on role theory, Beynon (2001) points to the changes in work patterns particularly the fact that less than half the men over 55 are in work. There is also a sense in which these men are caught between attempting to maintain the old-style macho posturing and the new-man type behaviour requiring a man to be in touch with his feelings. Beynon (2001) claims that generally men are less likely to tackle any psychological or physical illness which faces them. In marital breakdown, Beynon (2002) argues, the man is normally most responsible, with women starting 75% of divorces. Similarly nine out of ten men move out of the marital home after the breakdown of a marriage. This reason, however, is probably more of an artefact of the legal system and simple practicality than an indictment on men. Apart from anything else, men generally die younger and are much more likely to suffer from heart disease. The worrying facts and figures continue through both crime and education and other major areas of life. Violent crimes are mostly committed by men, indeed it is men who are mostly the victims of violent crime, and so it is violence that is seen as an important component of masculinity. Whitehead (2002) sees this violence discourse as having a powerful effect on peoples attitudes to men. Men are seen as being unable to cope with the demands of modern life, especially those men on the social and economic fringes, and so the resort to violence is only natural. Within education, in the schools, male performance is significantly lower then female. Despite much theoretical attention as well as some evidence from research on role theories and other areas, there has been a fair degree of criticism of the idea of a crisis in masculinity. Writers have asked whether the crisis of gender is anything new. Mangan (1997) (as cited in Whitehead, 2002) argues that masculinity, like femininity is constantly in crisis, constantly changing and adapting to new circumstances. Indeed, some of the fundamental ideas from psychoanalysis support the idea that masculinity is always a matter of crisis men will always have to cope with breast envy, womb envy and a castration complex. This question aside though, some commentators have asked if there is really anything to explain at all with the rise of feminism, men have suffered a loss of power relative to women and are trying to cope with that loss, some less successfully than others. Whitehead (2002) suggests that the crisis in masculinity is, in reality, an illusion confined to academic journals and has no meaning for people in the real world. Heartfield (2002), in arguing against a crisis of masculinity, talks of the fetishising of sexual difference, an exaggeration of the differences between men and women. Heartfield (2002) suggests that it is instead the working classes that are in crisis, not men in general. These ideas are far removed from those that come from psychoanalysis where many of the roots of future struggle are born in that difference. In conclusion, psychoanalytical ideas about the crisis in masculinity are grounded in the biological differences between the sexes and how these are dealt with psychologically. Other psychoanalysts and Lacanian ideas have taken these literal conflicts and, to some extent, moved them away from a focus on biological difference and introduced more cultural and social ideas. Social and cultural theories provide a wide variety of, and some reasons for, a possible crisis in masculinity. In particular, the use of role theory has provided an important analysis. Despite using the language of role conflict, the male preoccupations and problems described by role theory have many things in common with those arrived at by psychoanalytical means. Nevertheless, many authors have questioned whether this crisis in masculinity really exists and whether it is anything new. References Bergman, S.J. (1995) Mens psychological development: A relational perspective In R.F. Levant W.S Pollack (Eds.), A new psychology of men (pp. 33-67). New York: Basic Books. Beynon, J. (2001) Masculinities and culture. Buckingham: Open University Blazina, C. (2004) Gender Role Conflict and the Disidentification Process: Two Case Studies on Fragile Masculine Self. The Journal of Mens Studies, 12, 2, 151-161. Carroll, B. E. (2004) American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Faludi, S. (2000) Stiffed: the betrayal of the modern man. London: Vintage Freud, S. (1925) Psychical consequences anatomical distinction between the sexes, SE, 19, 248-258. Greenson, R. (1968). Disidentifying from mother: Its special importance for the boy. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49, 370-374. Heartfield, J. (2002) There is No Masculinity Crisis, Genders 35. Retrieved 5 January 2006 from Horrocks, R. (1994) Masculinity in Crisis. New York: St. Martins Press. Klein, M. (1930) The psychotherapy of the psychoses. British Journal of Medicine and Psychology, 10, 242-4. Klein, M. (1975) Love, Guilt, and Reparation and Other Works. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis Lacan, J. (2004) Ecrits: A Selection. New York: W. W. Norton Co Ltd. Mangan, J. A. (1997) Shakespeares First Action Heroes: critical masculinities in culture both popular and unpopular, unpublished paper. Minsky, R. (1995) Psychoanalysis and Gender: An Introductory Reader (Critical Readers in Theory Practice). Oxford: Routledge. ONeil, J. M., Helms, B. J., Gable, R. K., David, L., Wrightsman, L. S. (1986). Gender role conflict scale: College mens fear of femininity. Sex Roles, 14, 335-350. Office of National Statistics (2000) Social Trends 30. London: The Stationery Office. Scase, R. (1999) Demographic and Social Trends Issue Paper: Mosaic Living. EUR 18967 EN, Brussels: European Commission. Sharpe, M. J., Heppner, P. P. (1991). Gender role, gender-role conflict, and psychological well-being in men. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 38, 323-330. Watts, R. H., Borders, L. D. (2005) Boys Perceptions of the Male Role: Understanding Gender Role Conflict in Adolescent Males. Journal of Mens Studies, 13,2 267-280 Whitehead, S. (2002) Men and masculinities: key themes and new directions. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Bright Room Called Day by Tony Kushner - 678 Words

I saw the play â€Å"A Bright Room Called Day† by Tony Kushner on the 1st of November. I can say for sure that plays are always different and this play was completely different from the one we watched a couple weeks ago- â€Å"Rent†. This play is serious in its content , it is a specific historical play, which took place in Germany, more exactly Berlin, in the 1930s. The story is about five good friends during the time of the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party, the time before World War II. The story surrounded the main character- Agnes, who just loves her home and lives on her own and she thinks that everything will be alright as long as she stays away from negative influences. Representational and presentational acting can be seen in this play and helps us understand the character more. The characters acting I want to focus on is Vealtinc Husz, the lover of Agnes played by Chase Byrd. He is a one-eyed Hungarian director of movies, who moved to Berlin to became a part of the communist revolution party and ended up meeting the love of his life, Agnes. The main idea of his work, what he was interested in, was to promote propaganda art and also to develop some promotional ideas and changes in the communist community. Huszs problem (and maybe not the best side of his character)is that he talks more rather taking action. One type of acting shown by the character of Husz is representational. This type of acting is playing from the inside. Husz is a person who doesnt know a

Social Media And Marketing Free Essays

Abstract The growth of social media has brought about numerous changes in the way companies perform their responsibilities. With modern changes in the way people communicate, there is a need for businesses to embrace modern technology in undertaking their activities which were traditionally performed by other means. A company’s marketing requirements are necessary if a company has to achieve the required market share or target sales. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Media And Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now For a company to be successful, its marketing must be performed correctly by qualified employees who understand their responsibilities as well as the goal of the company. Introduction The belief by RasGas that the company has good employees, and that its performance is tied to the ability to retain and attract qualified workforce, has allowed the company to implement and develop the most effective and up to date recruitment strategies. These are based on appropriate methods that suit the company’s staffing needs (RasGas 2012). The recruitment team has taken a strategic role of supplying talent. The team has contributed to a highly attractive employment as well as compensation scheme development. The impact of this is that RasGas has been put in a competitive position where the labour market is challenging. Qualified employees with talent are likely to join the company because of the good reputation it has. An employee development project is being developed steered by the managing director with the aim of carrying out the following tasks. Succession planning, personal career development plans, an approach to appraise performance and develop careers. The philosophy aims to set the pace program for employee development (RasGas 20122012). Use of Social Media in Recruitment The use of social media for recruiting has become a powerful tool in recent years with recruiters searching for employees using social media sites while employees are searching such sites to check for new job postings. Employers are using Facebook, LinkedIn or Twitter to attract qualified employees because there is a belief that social media can exceed the key factors that makes the difference between an average recruiting tool and a dominant tool. Though social media is a complicated tool for hiring, it has unrivalled capabilities. The cost implications of using social media are far lower than other forms of media tools used for recruiting purposes. Since the visitors of social media have not intentionally visited the sites in search of job postings, it is possible to get paramount employees (â€Å"Social Media† 2012). The following are the main factors that make a social media suitable for recruitment; a huge and varied audience of ideal users with a large number of qualified prospects, all of the social media audience will be dominated by working, working and not necessarily searching for a job as well as the unemployed and that RasGas can make use of this to search for the best talent in potential employees before deciding on a given employee (Headworth 2012). It enables the shifting of workloads to others and the employees of an organisation would be useful in selecting and relationship building. Social media can help in relationship building through the development of trust and social interest. Messages through social media are mostly authentic in nature compared to other forms of media such as emails that may contain spam. Within the social media, accessibility is easier because there is widespread of mobile phones and personal computers, all with access to social media sites. Messages favoured by the target audience can be sent in the form of multimedia messaging. Quality recruitment can be achieved while using social media at low costs compared with other forms of recruiting media. It is therefore possible for RasGas to acquire the best, whilst facilitating the lowest capital thus saving on the company cost structure to increase profits (â€Å"Social Media† 2012). Marketing and Social Media Marketing can use social media to capture the most talented and brightest people in order to achieve high sales for RasGas liquefied natural gas. By using social media the company can select and recruit sales people all over the world reducing costs associated with such activities if the company decided to use other media. RasGas, with its international operation, requires that employees with varied cultures are employed. They must have the required skill to increase the performance of the company in different countries where RasGas sells its products. To increase the market share of RasGas qualified, as well as talented, employees must be engaged in line with the company’s goal of recruiting trained employees. By applying the best recruiting policies, the company is in a position of retaining the employees by employing candidates who are self motivated and ambitious towards increasing their sales (â€Å"Social Media† 2012). Types of Social Media that can Be Used by RasGas RasGas can use the following social media in its objectives of recruiting and retaining the best. Referral hiring has been enhanced by social media where recruiters have access to a wide range of talent through referrals by employees on social media. Employers pay bonuses to employees who refer suitable candidates to them (Liska 2012). Recruitment marketing through social media has enabled employers regardless of their size to access a large pool of data. The investments by prospective employers are lower alongside a reduction in time and other resources. Employers are able to access social media for attractive career pages with a rich and dynamic content. Recruiters can attach blog articles, photos or even embedding videos top create an engaging career content. Facebook delivers the widest talent pool compared to other social media. With a large number of subscribers, throughout the world, RasGas can make use of this platform to recruit the best employees possible. Facebook has a very large engagement of users who are both potential and non-potential employees making it possible for RasGas companies to identify talent more easily. RasGas can utilise the Facebook timeline that displays personal information as well as up to date professional qualifications to hire potential employees (Liska 2012). RasGas has an option of using Google + which is growing at a very fast pace. Google + enables users to maintain professional and personal lives, all in one place. Like other social media, Google + has a large following of professionals whom RasGas can find valuable in their recruitment. Google + is actively competing with Facebook with its unique hangouts feature that taps into video interviewing making it possible for RasGas to interview potential employees who are based in other countries. Google + also has circles that allow recruiters to message candidates and influencers (Liska 2012). Another form of social media that can be used by RasGas is Twitter which has grown in terms of features revenues and users. Having a following on Twitter, RasGas can grow its Twitter followers and get potential employees from this following. Employment officials from RasGas can be directed into other recruiter accounts making it possible for the company to recruit the best. LinkedIn is another form of social media that RasGas can facilitate in search of talent, however it is experiencing immense competition from other social networks like Facebook and Twitter and it offers a platform for more talent within a company (Liska 2012). Conclusion RasGas, being an international company, is required to adopt modern cost effective means of achieving its goals on maintaining the best employees in the company. Marketing play an important role in ensuring that the company’s products reach the market while at the same time making sure that customer expectations are met by the company through continued improvement. This can only be achieved through a potentially good workforce that is correctly trained and maintained. The global economic conditions of the world are changing fast and companies need to maintain a competitive advantage over their contenders if they want to survive. Bibliography Headworth, Andy, 2012. Smart Social Media Recruitment Strategies, [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 May, 2012]. Liska Jindrich, 2012. Social Recruiting Trends in 2012, [Online] Available at : [Accessed 8 May, 2012]. â€Å"Social Media: the Most Powerful Recruiting Tool Since the Telephone,† 2012. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 May, 2012]. â€Å"RasGas Careers† 2012. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 May, 2012]. How to cite Social Media And Marketing, Essay examples Social Media and Marketing Free Essays Social Media and Marketing Nowadays Social media is hype all over the world. To understand Social Media, One must first establish an accepted definition. Social media was defined by Marketo (2010) in The Definitive Guide to B2B Social Media as â€Å"the production, consumption and exchange of information through online social interactions and platforms. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Media and Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now † They are considered to be low-cost tools that combine use of echnology and social interaction and has become one of the main source of communication in the 21st-century and has enabled us to express our thoughts, ideas and feelings in a completely different way. The massive growth of social websites (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc) has ushered the world into a new era of Social Media. The global reach is nothing short of amazing, so much so that if Facebook were a country, it would be third largest (The Economist 2010), next to China and India. The marketing world has also been influenced by social media. It is not only been used for personal use, but there are many companies that are using Social networking sites as a marketing tool. The use of the social media in marketing is considered as a deviation from the traditional forms of marketing. In the past, marketing is done in terms of directly selling to the target audience particular products and services. There are some indispensable benefits of using social media in marketing. One of the greatest powers of social media in marketing is that the business firm can use it for targeting a local audience or market. It gives marketers a better way to communicate with peers, customers and potential consumers. It is a free marketing tool and is faster in terms of spreading information about a business products and services  than manpower and also helps companies to establish good communication with its customers and helps to market their products, builds brand equity, and increase customer’s loyalty. Application of social media in marketing comes in many forms and fits many functions. One function is to reach out and communicate with your customers, and blogging is one such tool for doing so. To ensure a successful presence on social media, the companies need to use variety of marketing theories so that they can boost their brand in different aspects. This can be combined with innovative ways of consumer interaction so that companies have a good chance to take the lead in the marketing world. For example, Ford Motor Company had recently adopted social media to promote the release of their new model Ford Focus. â€Å"We selected 40 Social Media practitioners and gave them each a Focus to test at a test track in Spain,† said Paul Venn, executive vice president of Team Detroit, Ford’s advertising agency. The videos were then distributed via Facebook, Twitter, and other social media platforms. The feedback from this marketing approach â€Å"is positive, given the number of views and the tenor of comments from videos shot on the test drive† (Levin, 2011). We have seen how social media has influenced the marketing world in a positive manner using suitable example; however there are some negative aspects of using social media in marketing. Many small organisations do not use social media because it is very time consuming and needs to be used effectively. It is also a ery competitive medium and marketers who use it very often and are successful with it are few in number and far between in comparison to the general population. Using social media enables people to direct messages towards an organisation that other consumers can see and often they cannot be ignored. The key here is to see how quickly an organisation will respond. All organisations will receive negative reviews but if they do not respond to them then it can be seen as poor service and it could be difficult for them to recover. It is often important to monitor social media even if you are not using it yourself. It is easy for someone to pretend to be anyone especially on social networking sites with cyber squatters all over the place. If you do not have knowledge about social media presence, someone could pretend to act as your business which could cause great damage to the reputation of your brand. In conclusion, this essay has clearly stated how social media has been used as a marketing tool in a number of ways regardless of the disadvantages. In the time of immense financial crunch and cut throat competition, social media marketing is a blessing in disguise. It provides an array of benefits which tempts many rganisations to use to social media in marketing. References: 1) eBook: Andreson, E. (2010) Social  Media  Marketing:  Game Theory and the Emergence of Collaboration  [eBook] , Berlin, Heidelberg. 2) Article: Andzulis, J. , Panagopoulos, N. , Rapp, A. , Journal of Personal Selling amp; Sales Management; Summer2012, Vol. 32 Issue 2, p305-316, 12p 3) Websites: a) DISCOVERY:  Heriot-Watt University Library Resources  [https://vision. hw. ac. uk/webapps/portal/frameset. jsp? tab_tab_group_id=_9_1] b) Google : http://www. dreamgrow. com/indispensable-benefits-of-social-media-marketing-to-your-business/ How to cite Social Media and Marketing, Papers

Learning As Art Essay Example For Students

Learning As Art Essay How does an auditory, grouper who scores out as a style C find success in an online learning environment? How does it not become a chore but rather a work of art that unfolds? There are many learning styles. With each learning style there are strengths and weaknesses that must be acknowledged in order to find a learning system that is effective and works for the individual. Forcing an individual to working a learning style that is contrary to their style can cause problems for the person to include frustration and helplessness. In this paper I will examine my own personal learning style. We will write a custom essay on Learning As Art specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now I will also explore ways that I have recognized these styles in day-to-day life, but have not necessarily categorized them as a particular learning style. I will explore my experience as an auditory learner, as a grouper and as a style c learner in relation to the Four Quadrants of learning (Gross, 1999, pp. 94-96). When I initially completed the learning styles inventory I was shocked. Prior to taking the test I looked at the three potential outcomes and thought, This will be a piece of cake. I already know what style I am. I am definitely a visual learner. I took the test and the results showed I am an auditory learner. Initially I felt certain I had done something wrong. I repeated the test and still arrived at the same conclusion. Still not satisfied, I began my research on the Internet. I took two additional tests. I am now certain it is true. I am an auditory learner. Although I did not want to embrace it, three separate tests are surely not incorrect. I had imagined the results would show me to be a visual learner. The business analysts and the actuaries at work joke if I am going to be in a meeting they have to include a graph with their numbers so I will be happy. It is true. However, I realized after taking the tests the critical piece to my grasping a concept is the act of being walked through the picture step by step through verbal communication. My secondary style is visual, and a combination of the two works well for me. This revelation of self as auditory learner has shed a lot of light on both my lack of success in traditional schooling as well as my inability to make it to read an article without becoming distracted. James A. Bell states, Western teachers also disfavored auditory learners ( , 2001). My teachers in high school would frequently get frustrated with me. Comments I heard frequently while going to school were, You need to quit being so social and focus on your studies, Must you talk about everything? if you would only apply yourself you could do anything you wanted. My parents nickname for me growing up was butterfly. They would comment I would never light and was way too easily distracted and would fly away before things got boring. I always thought these comments made my teachers and my parents pointed out my deficiencies. What I am learning through this course is that they are accurate observations of an auditory learner. The strength in this learning style is obviously having good communication skills. The weaknesses are that I am easily distracted and have a difficult time focusing on the written word so I struggle with traditional learning environments. I also took the Are you a grouper or a stringer test in Peak Learning. The test was comprised of ten questions. If you scored 6 or more a answers you are considered a grouper. If you scored 6 or more b answers you are considered a stringer. I scored ten a answers, this made me a full-blown grouper. The book states traditional classroom learning does not favor the grouper style. This approach works to the disadvantage of groupers, who prefer to come to grips with overall principles before getting down to the finer details of a topic (Gross, 1999, p. 90). One of the strengths of this learning style is the ability to understand the big picture and think abstractly. This helps in a high-level management position. An obvious weakness is difficulty in traditional classroom settings. Although an assumption could be made this weakness would no longer apply to me, it is incorrect. .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 , .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .postImageUrl , .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 , .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44:hover , .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44:visited , .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44:active { border:0!important; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44:active , .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44 .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub7740e0592ea1ae840ac50e567151b44:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Camping: Campfire and Best Friend EssayThe job I currently hold requires ongoing continuing education in a classroom to maintain licensure. The training team for our division just recently started reporting to me. We are currently revamping some of our classes to accommodate several learning styles, instead of just gearing it towards one. I am a style c learner in the four quadrants for learning. According to Gross (1999) Style C is primarily interested in moods, atmospheres, and attitudes, . He further states, There is a strong interest in people and communication; logic and theory take second place to feeling and experience (p. 6). This could not be more accurate. Recently my division underwent a thorough process analysis. We reviewed every single process for the adjusters and nurses. The thought of having to analyze each process made my head swim. Fortunately, my coworker, Melissa was also assigned to the task. Melissa is interested in logic, order and process. She took care of documenting and flowcharting each process. I was responsible for brainstorming (communication) after the fact. I met with staff members and we discussed and prepared a gap analysis from the work that had already been done. It is fortunate for me I have a boss who is cognizant of my style as well as my coworkers style and capitalizes on them for the betterment of the company. If he had reversed the roles on the project it could have failed, or taken longer. It is a certainty Melissa and I would have been frustrated and not had job satisfaction for the duration of the project. Conclusion Now that I am back in school I feel like a sculptor with a piece of marble. Where and how do I make that first chip? What is it I am going to create? Or become? Studying and learning about my personal learning styles is like doing the first draft on wood. What works? What does not? I know I cannot count on learning solely from reading. I must converse. I must listen. I know my weaknesses. I am easily distracted and I struggle with comprehension of the written word. The weaknesses will not deter me, though. I have strengths as well. I do remember what I hear. I have the ability to think big picture and I am a good communicator. I can chip away at the piece of marble like an artist, focus on the strengths and chip away at the weaknesses. In the end I hope to produce a work of art I never thought I could, Lisa as successful student through awareness of personal style.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Porter’s 5 Forces Within the FB Industry (Bakery Business) free essay sample

Threat of entry: The FB industry has low barriers to entry. Opening a hawker business requires relatively low start-up capital. The cooking skills involved to sell edible and hygienic food are not too difficult to acquire. As a result, there are thousands of restaurants to choose from. In addition that, hawker do not stay in business for very long due to bad menus, dining experience, food quality and service. Furthermore, as addressed by Dr Vivian Balakrishnan, rents would need to be realistic and not only profit focused or orientated to encourage new hawker entrepreneurs to set-up and existing ones to survive with current high inflation, cost of living and business operational costs. This will increase the threat of entry as the barrier to enter is getting lower. Threat of substitutes: In the hawker food business, there are not any substantial substitutes to food because people have to eat food every day. We will write a custom essay sample on Porter’s 5 Forces Within the FB Industry (Bakery Business) or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Food is a basic need and nothing can substitute that. Since there are no major substitutes the threat is relatively low. However, hawker food is similar to home-cooked food. With the current inflation, individuals may just substitute to home-cooked food where they can have their food according to their own taste and preferences. Power of buyers: Power of buyers is relatively high for a hawker. The hawker must constantly be staying in tune to customer preferences or the customers will easily eat at another stall. The FB industry is highly competitive and in addition there are low switching costs for consumers and consumers have access to quality and nutrition information. Many hawkers have seen this and are now posting nutrition information because customers are more likely to visit a stall that posts the information. Also, in Singapore there have been passed that requires hawkers to post inspection results in a visible spot. This now makes hawkers pay closer attention to the stall quality because they may lose business if they do not receive a good inspection. Power of suppliers: Hawkers’ suppliers have a relatively low bargaining power because they implement a lot of controls to keep their bargaining power low. Hawker’s controls the quality of their main product by making the spices, noodles, etc, themselves daily. Hawkers’ have numerous suppliers for each ingredient so that it can obtain ingredients from other suppliers when necessary. This lowers the risk of a supplier driving up the price for hawkers because if one does, the hawkers could simply switch to another supplier. Hawkers could take many initiatives to continue to survive and thrive in the coming years. Hawkers could increase their focus on catering to expand their stall brand. The hawkers could also continue to focus on a healthy menu to meet customer demands. Hawkers could increase the awareness of the use of all natural ingredients to attract new customers. Also, hawkers could increase their dinner offerings to increase their sales and customers at off peak hours instead of just focusing on the lunch-time hour.